Thursday, November 30, 2017

Mini Magazine December 2017

After 12 years of working for the magazine, I’m struggling to recall seeing a Mini built with such incredible attention to detail as this month’s cover star. Not only has Neal Hynard produced a 1275 GT with perfect bodywork and a stonker of an engine, he’s even gone as far as polishing every nut and bolt. I’m a big fan of GTs, so it was a natural choice for an issue that will sadly be my last as editor of this great publication.

It’s not been an easy decision. Minis mean absolutely everything to me, and have done for as long as I can remember. I started at the mag as the work experience kid in 2005, and I’ve now been involved in 151 issues - more than half of the 271 produced so far. I can honestly say the last 12 years have been the best of my life, and the magazine has enabled me to see cars, people, places and cultures that I never imagined I would. All good things come to an end though, and I’m excited about a new role with one of the longestrunning car clubs in the world.

Mini Magazine will continue to thrive under a talented team of enthusiasts, and you’ll see a new face writing in this space next month. The new editor will be able to bring great new ideas to keep the mag at the forefront of the Mini scene, although I can guarantee you haven’t seen the back of me completely, for I’ll still be contributing and going to as many shows as I can. After all, I do have nine Minis to think about! I’d need an entire magazine to name all the fellow writers, specialists and, of course, readers who have supported me in my dream job. A huge thanks to you all – I’m proud to say that I’ve made friends for life.

Enjoy the mag, and I hope to see you again very soon...

Jeff Ruggles
Editor, Mini Magazine

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Lamborghini Urraco Restoration

Lamborghini. There is something about this hallowed marque that is guaranteed to send a shiver of excitement down the spine of any enthusiast worth their salt. It’s a name that inspires images of impossibly glamorous supercars as eye-catchingly radical in their styling as they are monstrously quick. Maybe you grew up with a poster of a Countach on your bedroom wall or dreamt about piloting a Miura through the Alps in an attempt to emulate Rossano Brazzi (preferably without the angry Caterpillar 944A). Or perhaps you just like the idea of Ferruccio sticking up two fingers at Enzo’s arrogance. Fact or fantasy, this is a manufacturer that causes us to slip into a world of reverie. As a car nut, you haven’t earnt your wings until you’ve driven one.

It may sound unlikely, but Drive-My’s chief photographer Tony Baker would not describe himself as a car enthusiast. Not even close. Our resident Action Man is far more interested in pedal power than horsepower. After 25 years on the magazine, he harbours a deep-seated mistrust of Italian cars, and Lamborghinis in particular. “They always break down,” is the standard response whenever he discovers that we will be encountering one, so it is with little joy that he receives the assignment to photograph the Urraco P250S that you see before you.

Such a scathing opinion is not based entirely upon prejudice – if they are not treated in the correct manner, old Lamborghinis can be highly strung – so it makes the subject of our story all the more fascinating. “I rebuilt it to be usable and reliable,” says the Urraco’s hands-on owner Tony Wates. “Life is too short to spend your time detailing cars for shows. It needs to work to drive it, and you need to drive it to make it work, so this is a machine that gets used.”

Wates’ rebuild of this Lambo began in 2007, but he first encountered KYP 936P several years before that. “It belonged to a mate of mine who is a painter and decorator,” he recalls today. “He had it standing in a shed and, having always dreamt of owning a Lamborghini, I told him that if he decided to sell it that I would be keen to take it off his hands. He wasn’t interested, but three years down the line circumstances changed. He offered me the Urraco for £8000, to which I replied that I’d give him £6000. He declined, but a couple of months after that came back to me and said he’d let me have it for £6k – at which point I replied that I only had five and a half. So that is what I ended up paying for it.”

Today, £5500 for a classic Lamborghini may sound like a steal, but remember that the world was a different place a decade ago – as indeed was this particular car: “The Urraco was an underrated model, and the market had yet to experience the massive growth in values, so it was a fair price – not least because it was in a pretty parlous state, mechanically at least.”

Thankfully the body was sound, with just a few odd dents and nicks but no major rust. “I don’t know where to start with bodywork,” says Wates, “so the fact that it was in great shape encouraged me to buy the car.” Even the paintwork was reasonable, a previous owner having had the Urraco resprayed during his custodianship, changing the colour from white to yellow – the third different hue to have graced the car since it left Sant’Agata in 1975 (it was originally red with a brown interior). Among the minor repairs that were necessary to the metalwork was the area under the rear seat, which had become corroded as a result of the damp shed: “Luckily the damage was largely superficial and it cleaned up nicely, because serious bodywork on one of these needs a specialist with genuine artistry.”

Although Wates was fortunate enough to avoid the complication and cost of restoring the car’s structure, mechanically it was a different matter. The Urraco’s slatted engine cover may be a wonderfully period style statement, but it does little to protect the transverse 2463cc V8 from the inclement British climate: “The engine was basically full of water and had eaten itself from the inside out. I’d hoped that I might get it running after just a thorough service, but at best it was firing on five cylinders. It took me three months just to rebuild the carbs.”

To read more click the frame below.

Politics fourth edition by Andrew Heywood


Politics is exciting because people disagree. They disagree about how they should live. Who should get what? How should power and other resources be distributed? Should society be based on cooperation or conflict? And so on. They also disagree about how such matters should be resolved. How should collective decisions be made? Who should have a say? How much influence should each person have? And so forth. For Aristotle, this made politics the ‘master science’: that is, nothing less than the activity through which human beings attempt to improve their lives and create the Good Society. Politics is, above all, a social activity. It is always a dialogue, and never a monologue. Solitary individuals such as Robinson Crusoe may be able to develop a simple economy, produce art, and so on, but they cannot engage in politics. Politics emerges only with the arrival of a Man (or Woman) Friday. Nevertheless, the disagreement that lies at the heart of politics also extends to the nature of the subject and how it should be studied. People disagree about what it is that makes social interaction ‘political’, whether it is where it takes place (within government, the state or the public sphere generally), or the kind of activity it involves (peacefully resolving conflict or exercising control over less powerful groups). Disagreement about the nature of politics as an academic discipline means that it embraces a range of theoretical approaches and a variety of schools of analysis. Finally, globalizing tendencies have encouraged some to speculate that the disciplinary divide between politics and international relations has now become redundant.


Politics, in its broadest sense, is the activity through which people make, preserve and amend the general rules under which they live. Although politics is also an academic subject (sometimes indicated by the use of ‘Politics’ with a capital P), it is then clearly the study of this activity. Politics is thus inextricably linked to the phenomena of conflict and cooperation. On the one hand, the existence of rival opinions, different wants, competing needs and opposing interests guarantees disagreement about the rules under which people live. On the other hand, people recognize that, in order to influence these rules or ensure that they are upheld, they must work with others – hence Hannah Arendt’s (see p. 7) definition of polit ical power as ‘acting in concert’. This is why the heart of politics is often portrayed as a process of conflict resolution, in which rival views or competing interests are reconciled with one another. However, politics in this broad sense is better thought of as a search for conflict resolution than as its achievement, as not all conflicts are, or can be, resolved. Nevertheless, the inescapable presence of diversity (we are not all alike) and scarcity (there is never enough to go around) ensures that politics is an inevitable feature of the human condition.

Any attempt to clarify the meaning of ‘politics’ must nevertheless address two major problems. The first is the mass of associations that the word has when used in everyday language; in other words, politics is a ‘loaded’ term. Whereas most people think of, say, economics, geography, history and biology simply as academic subjects, few people come to politics without preconceptions. Many, for instance, automatically assume that students and teachers of politics must in some way be biased, finding it difficult to believe that the subject can be approached in an impartial and dispassionate manner (see p. 19). To make matters worse, politics is usually thought of as a ‘dirty’ word: it conjures up images of trouble, disruption and even violence on the one hand, and deceit, manipulation and lies on the other. There is nothing new about such associations. As long ago as 1775, Samuel Johnson dismissed politics as ‘nothing more than a means of rising in the world’, while in the nineteenth century the US historian Henry Adams summed up politics as ‘the systematic organization of hatreds’.

The second and more intractable difficulty is that even respected authorities cannot agree what the subject is about. Politics is defined in such different ways: as the exercise of power, the science of government, the making of collective decisions, the allocation of scarce resources, the practice of deception and manipulation, and so on. The virtue of the definition advanced in this text – ‘the making, preserving and amending of general social rules’ – is that it is sufficiently broad to encompass most, if not all, of the competing definitions. However, problems arise when the definition is unpacked, or when the meaning is refined. For instance, does ‘politics’ refer to a particular way in which rules are made, preserved or amended (that is, peacefully, by debate), or to all such processes? Similarly, is politics practised in all social contexts and institutions, or only in certain ones (that is, government and public life)?

From this perspective, politics may be treated as an ‘essentially contested’ concept, in the sense that the term has a number of acceptable or legitimate meanings (concepts are discussed more fully later in the chapter). On the other hand, these different views may simply consist of contrasting conceptions of the same, if necessarily vague, concept. Whether we are dealing with rival concepts or alternative conceptions, it is helpful to distinguish between two broad approaches to defining politics (Hay, 2002; Leftwich, 2004). In the first, politics is associated with an arena or location, in which case behaviour becomes ‘political’ because of where it takes place. In the second, politics is viewed as a process or mechanism, in which case ‘political’ behaviour is behaviour that exhibits distinctive characteristics or qualities, and so can take place in any, and perhaps all, social contexts. Each of these broad approaches has spawned alternative definitions of politics, and, as discussed later in the chapter, helped to shape different schools of political analysis (see Figure 1.1). Indeed, the debate about ‘what is politics?’ is worth pursuing precisely because it exposes some of the deepest intellectual and ideological disagreement in the academic study of the subject.

India: Priorities for the Future

Bimal Jalan’s formidable analysis of the last four decades of India’s economic journey illuminates the nation’s transition from a strictly regulated, slow-growth state enterprise to one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Dr Jalan has had a ringside view of financial governance during his long and distinguished career, which included stints as Union Finance Secretary and Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. Drawing on this vast experience he compares two distinct periods: 1980–2000 and 2000–15, to examine the core changes and their significance, and considers their lessons for the immediate future.

Dr Jalan suggests six critical issues where change can make a difference: revisit the anti-defection law so parties that join a coalition cannot defect without having to seek re-election; make the states—rather than the centre—responsible for financial development programmes and poverty-alleviation schemes; establish rules to make Parliament’s proceedings orderly and purposeful; ensure a stable and competitive economic environment; make sure ministries are accountable for actual performance; and, finally, rationalize the system of delivery of public services to persons below the poverty line.

With such measures, India can become one of the fastest-growing emerging global powers and ensure that the benefits of such growth reach all her people. -


In 2017—the year of this book’s publication—India will celebrate the seventieth year of its independence. On 15 August 1947, when India became independent, in a celebrated and oft-quoted passage in his address to the nation, Jawaharlal Nehru said, ‘Long years ago, we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.’

As we look back to that day, there is certainly much to rejoice in what our nation has been able to achieve. Seventy years ago, in the light of India’s poverty and diversity, there were not too many political observers who believed that Indian democracy would survive for long. Over time, however, India’s democratic system has not only survived but is universally regarded as a role model for the peaceful transfer of power from one government to another after periodic elections.

The Indian economy, which for quite some time—in the 1960s and the 1970s—was in the doldrums, also recovered and has shown steady growth since the beginning of the 1980s. The economy’s potential for even faster growth is now believed to be high, according to experts from all over the world. The view that India will become one of the dominant economies of the world by the middle of the twenty-first century is fast gaining traction.

At the same time, it is important to recognize that while all this is true, the working of our political and economic system requires constant vigilance and the launching of reforms, as necessary, from time to time. The processes of governance, the distribution of power among the different agencies of the state, the functioning of political parties and the work of Parliament must be under periodic review. The real issue now is not whether India’s democratic electoral system has proved its sustainability, but whether it can be made to work better in the light of political developments over time.

In terms of governance structure, the twenty-year period of 1980–2000 was significantly different from the first fifteen years, i.e., from 2000–15, of the twenty-first century. During the earlier period, there were as many as nine different governments in power at the Centre at various points in time, including two Congress governments, led by Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi, which were in office for their full terms. During the 1990s, however, there were seven different governments formed by the coalition of parties in Parliament, of which as many as six governments were in office for less than one year.

In contrast, during 2000–14, there were three governments that completed their full terms, one led by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), followed by two Congress-led coalitions. Currently, since 2014, for the first time in the twenty-first century, we have a new government formed by a party that commands a majority on its own. In terms of governance and politics, the situation is now dramatically different. The present government is now in a position to launch the major reforms or administrative changes that may be required to realize India’s full economic potential of high growth combined with a faster rate of poverty alleviation.

As is clear from the table of contents at the beginning, the book is divided into two sections, ‘India Then (1980–2000)’ and ‘India Now (2000–15)’. The first section highlights the initiation of the reform process during the twenty-year period of 1980–2000, when there were several different governments in power. The second section highlights the economic situation at the beginning of the twenty-first century and the changes that occurred in governance and the administrative system under the previous three governments that were in power for their full terms. The last chapter in this section highlights some important priorities for the future in the areas of politics and governance in the light of recent developments in the economy.

On 18 January 1991, India’s foreign-exchange reserves stood at only $930 million. This was barely sufficient to meet even the daily cash requirements of an economy of India’s size. But for a loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which was approved in mid-January of 1991, there was a strong possibility that India would have been forced to default on its international obligations for the first time in its post-Independence history.

In the light of India’s highly disappointing record of the way in which the economy was organized during the years before 1990, the first essay in this book outlines a ten-point programme of action which, in future, could lay the foundations of sustainable growth and could also be implemented quickly.

As it happens, the suggestions made in the essay, published twenty-five years ago in 1991, are still relevant. Some of the suggestions of contemporary importance, for example, are:

    Early action to eliminate revenue deficit altogether;
    Reorganization of public-sector enterprises, particularly loss-making ones, through disinvestment;
    Replacement of direct physical controls by non-discretionary fiscal, credit and financial regulations;
    Decentralization of planning and financing of public projects to state governments;
    Ensuring that the highest priority is assigned to achieving full literacy within a decade;
    Reducing administrative costs in the delivery of services to the poor; and
    Making the administrative system at the Centre and the states more functional and accountable to the people.

The second chapter, ‘Controls, Regulations and the State’, written in 1996, highlights the slow progress in reducing the role of the state in controlling and regulating the allocation of resources in the economy, or for that matter, in improving the functioning of the administrative system for the benefit of the people. As it happened, over time, there was, in fact, a vast expansion of the Central government, which, by early 1990, had as many as 3.5 million employees (in comparison to the total employment figures of about 4.5 million persons in manufacturing in the private organized sector). The number of ministries and departments at the Centre and in the states also proliferated.

In the context of the above background of developments during the 1980s, Chapter 3, in the section ‘India Then’, highlights certain priorities for initiating a new strategy that would ensure economic stability, reduce high fiscal deficits and accelerate public investment in infrastructure as well as loss-making public-sector enterprises. A basic point made in this chapter is that the key to accelerating growth in India, as elsewhere, lies in higher investment in industry. This was particularly so at low points in industrial and business cycles when the current output was growing slowly. In looking for a strategy for higher industrial growth in the 1990s, this chapter tries to identify those factors that could facilitate higher investment by industry in new plants and technologies, and significantly accelerate India’s industrial and overall growth rate.

The fourth chapter in this section deals with the evolving role of finance and development. This role has, of course, always been recognized. However, the events of the last few years, particularly after the East Asian crisis of 1997, have brought to the fore the critical role of the financial system in determining the stability and sustainability of the real economy. As a result, the reform of the financial system, and the rules and codes that should govern the conduct of financial business, figure high on the domestic agenda for reform as well as on the international agenda for global cooperation.

The most important lesson emerging from the Asian crisis is the need to be vigilant about developments—domestic and international—that may impinge on a country’s financial relations with the rest of the world. The process of integration of worldwide financial markets has resulted in product innovation and greater efficiency, but it has also made developing countries subject to greater vulnerability and new risks. Strong fundamentals alone cannot provide full immunity from a crisis. There is a need to take early preventive action, to build firewalls and to keep some safety nets handy.

In the light of the above discussion, the fourth chapter ends with a review of the recent Indian experience in financial management and lays down some priorities for the future. In working out these priorities, it is important to remember that financial reforms and liberalization of markets are the means to an end—not ends in themselves.

The second section in the book, ‘India Now (2000–15)’, deals with India’s economic and political situation since the beginning of the twenty-first century and highlights some important priorities for the future for the country to realize its full potential as one of the fastest-growing emerging economies. The first essay in this section (in Chapter 5) emphasizes the need for India to move towards more and deeper economic reforms in the future.

In addition to economic reforms, which figure prominently in the national discourse, it is now essential to embark on an urgent programme to revitalize the governance and public delivery systems at all levels of the government—the Centre, state and districts. Without strengthening the ability of the government to do what it alone can do, and narrowing the focus of its activities to what matters most for the future development of the country—education, health, clean environment and a functioning infrastructure—India cannot adequately seize the opportunities that lie ahead.

Chapter 6, titled ‘Politics and Governance’, deals with some issues that require action at the highest level of the government to improve governance and delivery of public service to the people. Chapter 7, ‘Separation of Powers: The Myth and the Reality’, deals with issues relating to the separation of powers among the three organs of the state—the legislature, the judiciary and the executive.

The last chapter of the book deals with certain important ‘Priorities for the Future’, particularly with respect to the reform of politics and governance so that India is able to realize its full economic potential as an emerging power. The objective is to put these priorities together in a form that makes it feasible to implement them within a relatively short period of time—hopefully, before the next General Election in 2019.

The Inheritors: Stories of Enduring Success and Innovation


If there is one thing I have learnt from my years in leading a business, it is the power of the story. If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a story is worth a thousand sermons. Stories encapsulate messages in a way that makes them hard to forget.

In my own group, when people want to describe the business, its history, its progress and its culture, I find that they don’t talk about profit figures or growth statistics or revenue projections. They talk about stories—stories about the people whose personalities shaped the company, stories about the ways in which the company coped with good times and bad, stories illustrating the values that are a torch passed down from generation to generation.

Sonu Bhasin has very effectively used the medium of stories to trace the trials and triumphs of some outstanding family-owned businesses in India. Family-owned companies are the backbone of Indian industry. At last count, fifteen of the top twenty Indian businesses in India were family-owned, in some sense of the phrase. They enjoy advantages like agility, nimbleness and speed of decision-making. They also face the challenges of family dynamics and culture, intergenerational perspectives and handling succession. This book elicits the family perspective on all these aspects. The stories it articulates convey all the difficulties, all the challenges, all the drama and all the rewards of creating a business that flourishes over generations. Reading these sagas in the words of the people who lived them makes an impact that no classroom lecture can match.

I am sure that The Inheritors will provide insight and inspiration not only to members of family businesses but also to anyone who aspires to be an entrepreneur. Learning from someone else’s success story is a very powerful incentive to fashion your own.

September 2017

Anand Mahindra

Chairman and MD, Mahindra Group


Why did Harsh Mariwala leave his family business? What made the entire Dabur management to quit one day? How did Dhingra brothers turn a suffering business in to India s second largest paints company? This is a fascinating behind the scenes look into what goes behind brands like Marico, Dabar, Keventers, Berger Paints, Select Group, Max Group and many others. The book focuses on the culture, family politics, business rivalries between and within families, ego battles and a lot more. Plus there are the inheritors themselves who sometimes take the business to great heights and during others, lead to its doom. -

Islam: An American Religion (Religion, Culture, and Public Life)

Islam: An American Religion demonstrates how Islam as formed in the United States has become an American religion in a double sense―first through the strategies of recognition adopted by Muslims and second through the performance of Islam as a faith.

Nadia Marzouki investigates how Islam has become so contentious in American politics. Focusing on the period from 2008 to 2013, she revisits the uproar over the construction of mosques, legal disputes around the prohibition of Islamic law, and the overseas promotion of religious freedom. She argues that public controversies over Islam in the United States primarily reflect the American public's profound divisions and ambivalence toward freedom of speech and the legitimacy of liberal secular democracy. -

Extreme Cities: The Peril and Promise of Urban Life in the Age of Climate Change

A cutting exploration of how cities drive climate change while being on the frontlines of the coming climate crisis

How will climate change affect our lives? Where will its impacts be most deeply felt? Are we doing enough to protect ourselves from the coming chaos? In Extreme Cities, Ashley Dawson argues that cities are ground zero for climate change, contributing the lion’s share of carbon to the atmosphere, while also lying on the frontlines of rising sea levels. Today, the majority of the world’s megacities are located in coastal zones, yet few of them are adequately prepared for the floods that will increasingly menace their shores. Instead, most continue to develop luxury waterfront condos for the elite and industrial facilities for corporations. These not only intensify carbon emissions, but also place coastal residents at greater risk when water levels rise.

In Extreme Cities, Dawson offers an alarming portrait of the future of our cities, describing the efforts of Staten Island, New York, and Shishmareff, Alaska residents to relocate; Holland’s models for defending against the seas; and the development of New York City before and after Hurricane Sandy. Our best hope lies not with fortified sea walls, he argues. Rather, it lies with urban movements already fighting to remake our cities in a more just and equitable way.

As much a harrowing study as a call to arms Extreme Cities is a necessary read for anyone concerned with the threat of global warming, and of the cities of the world. -

The State of Affairs: Rethinking Infidelity

Iconic couples’ therapist and bestselling author of Mating in Captivity Esther Perel returns with a provocative look at relationships through the lens of infidelity.

Affairs, she argues, have a lot to teach us about the human heart—what we expect, what we think we want, and what we feel entitled to. They offer a unique window into our personal and cultural attitudes about love, lust, and commitment. Through examining illicit love from multiple angles, Perel invites readers into an honest, enlightened, and entertaining exploration of modern marriage in its many variations. 

An affair: it can rob a couple of their relationship, their happiness, their very identity. And yet, this extremely common human experience is so poorly understood. What are we to make of this time-honored taboo—universally forbidden yet universally practiced? Why do people cheat—even those in happy marriages? Why does an affair hurt so much? When we say infidelity, what exactly do we mean? Do our romantic expectations of marriage set us up for betrayal? Is there such a thing as an affair-proof marriage? Is it possible to love more than one person at once? Can an affair ever help a marriage? Perel weaves real-life case stories with incisive psychological and cultural analysis in this fast-paced and compelling book.

For the past ten years, Perel has traveled the globe and worked with hundreds of couples who have grappled with infidelity. Betrayal hurts, she writes, but it can be healed. An affair can even be the doorway to a new marriage—with the same person. With the right approach, couples can grow and learn from these tumultuous experiences, together or apart.

Affairs, she argues, have a lot to teach us about modern relationships—what we expect, what we think we want, and what we feel entitled to. They offer a unique window into our personal and cultural attitudes about love, lust, and commitment. Through examining illicit love from multiple angles, Perel invites readers into an honest, enlightened, and entertaining exploration of modern marriage in its many variations.

Fiercely intelligent, The State of Affairs provides a daring framework for understanding the intricacies of love and desire. As Perel observes, “Love is messy; infidelity more so. But it is also a window, like no other, into the crevices of the human heart.” -

The Shipwreck Hunter: A lifetime of extraordinary discoveries on the ocean floor

David Mearns has discovered some of the world's most fascinating and elusive shipwrecks. From the mighty battlecruiser HMS Hood to the crumbling wooden skeletons of Vasco da Gama's 16th century fleet, David has searched for and found dozens of sunken vessels in every ocean of the world.
The Shipwreck Hunter is an account of David's most intriguing and fascinating finds. It details both the meticulous research and the mid-ocean stamina and courage required to find a wreck miles beneath the sea, as well as the moving human stories that lie behind each of these oceanic tragedies.
Combining the derring-do of Indiana Jones with the precision of a surgeon, in The Shipwreck Hunter David Mearns opens a porthole into the shadowy depths of the ocean. -

The Success Makers' Guide To Declutter Your Life


A great place to start is to remove those difficult decisions that are taking up our ‘mental bandwidth’.

Many of us think that the big ‘limit’ on our ability to get things done is time. We all make the excuse that we don’t exercise because we don’t have time and that we don’t do more with the family because we don’t have time.

That’s actually not true. If you think back to all of those times in your life when you’ve been doing ‘nothing’, then you’ll probably realize that you actually had plenty of time. Just this week, you’ve probably spent at least a good couple of hours on Facebook/YouTube/the website of your choice, and there’s a good chance you’ve watched a fair amount of useless TV as well.

That’s all time that you could have been using to exercise, to phone friends, to tidy the house.

The point? You don’t have any problem with time. Your problem is with energy. The reason you’re not using that available time more efficiently, or even to have fun is that you’re low on energy.

And did you know that your will-power decreases too as you run out of energy? Not only do you have less physical energy to get up and tidy when you’re tired, you also have less mental willpower in order to encourage yourself to do it.

Energy management then is actually much more important than time management very often. And a BIG component of energy management is to understand the impact that decision making has on our energy levels.

Every time you have to make a decision, this takes a toll on your energy levels and leaves you with a little less energy to ‘spend’ on other tasks.

For instance, when you wake up in the morning and decide what you’re going to wear, that will not only take up time but it will also take up energy. Likewise, when you decide what to have for lunch, you’ll also be using up your mental energy to make that decision.

And this then means that you have less energy when it comes to making other, more important decisions. When someone asks you what to do at work, or when you’re wondering how best to save your money, you now have less mental energy available to dedicate to that decision. By the end
of the day, you burn out!

How to Reduce Decisions

So what’s the solution? There are a number of things you can do but one of the most important steps is simply to reduce the number of decisions that you’re forced to make in a day.

This is actually something that Steve Jobs is famous for doing. Jobs apparently decided he wanted to reduce the number of trivial decisions he had to make in his life and so he removed all variation from his clothing. He replaced all of his items of clothing with just black t-shirts and jeans. That meant that every single morning, he would put on his one outfit and never need to worry about what he was going to wear!

Steve Jobs as you know, would go on to help invent the iPod, iPhone and iPad. So presumably it was working for him!

That’s quite extreme of course and not everyone is going to want to surrender all variation in their clothing. Thus, let’s take a look at some more gentle and moderate solutions you can apply to your own life…


While you might not want to go as far as Jobs with it, there are nevertheless effective ways you can reduce the decision making surrounding your choice of outfits. One of the easiest ways to do this is just to plan your out fits in advance so that you have all of those items ready to go. You can even write this out on Sunday evening so you can refer to that plan.

This is one of those ideas that sounds perfect in theory but sometimes falls down in practice – what happens if you put on that outfit and you don’t like it or you’re not in the mood for it for instance?

Another solution then is simply to have, say, 20 outfits for work that you know you like and that you know are suitable. Now, you can simply refer to any of those 20 in the morning without too much thought. 20 is enough that your colleagues will only see you in the same outfit once every two months – but you will still never be stressed about whether your outfit works, or because you have nothing to wear.

Another tip is to ensure that you choose your clothes in such a way that they can be combined into multiple different outfits. In other words, make sure that most of your trousers go with most of your tops. Now you’ll be able to throw multiple combinations together with less thought.

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Pragmatic Capitalism

Sample Contents

What is Money?

From an economic and financial perspective understanding precisely what money is and how it influences the economy is crucial. Why? Because money is the most important tool we use in modern life. Money is at the heart of every financial transaction, including our calculations of output, profits, and every measurement of our financial health. Understanding how this tool works is central not only to understanding how the monetary system and the economy works but to understanding modern human life.

Why Do We Use Money?

Before we can say what money is, it’s helpful to understand first why money even exists. To answer that question, and really begin to understand money and the history of money, it might help to understand the most basic purpose that money serves. As highly socialized and intelligent animals, we humans have created various tools that improve our ability to trade and interact. A barter system is relatively primitive and insufficient because it forces you to be able to obtain something that someone else will want in exchange for the things you might need. Creating a universal medium of exchange is the bind that ties all goods and services together by making all goods and services exchangeable. At its core money is simply a social construct that allows for the exchange of
goods and services.

Money, within a modern human society, is highly evolved, formal, and even institutionalized. The true history of money is lost in time, but it’s likely that money started in the form of unspoken promises, evolved through a barter system of some type, and has expanded over time into formal promises and legal contracts. Today most money is defined and protected by laws. Modern money has evolved primarily into the electronic records of account.

We live in a highly advanced and sophisticated economic system that is predicated on the social interaction of trading goods and services for money. Said differently, money is the medium by which we gain access to the things we desire. You can’t always trade a back scratch for a back scratch, but humans have resolved that issue by creating something that facilitates the exchange of most goods and services. For instance, if I want a back scratch, but I don’t want to scratch your back, it’s not a problem. Instead you scratch my back in exchange for $10, thereby voiding my need to provide you with an equivalent back scratch, and you can go buy whatever you want.

At its most basic level money is just a tool that is created to facilitate exchanges among highly socialized animals—a social tool that acts as an intermediary in transactions. So now we can arrive at our first understanding of money:
1. Money is a social construct.
But this still doesn’t tell us why money exists. Why do you work such long hours to acquire pieces of paper or electronic credits in a bank account? Why do we stress and worry about money? It might help a bit to think of money as a theater ticket.1 If the economy (and our access to goods and services) is the theater, then we can think of money as the ticket that gains us entry to the show. In a modern monetary system a specifically designated form of money is little more than something that gains you entry to be able to transact within that economy. And we work because of and stress about our ability to obtain money because our access to the goods and services that we need ultimately relies on obtaining this tool. At times in human history money has been many things, including unspoken bonds, sticks, rocks, precious metals, pieces of paper, or records on the Internet. Technically, many things can and do meet the various properties of money. These things generally represent something of a certain value that can be easily measured. In other words we have developed a system of using items of particular value that represent the right to claim a certain amount of goods and services. It is, in essence, a way of recording a deferred promise. But we should be careful not to always think of money as a physical thing or something that has intrinsic value. Money represents a certain value, but the money thing itself (like a cash note) does not necessarily have intrinsic value.

Money in a modern society is largely made up of electronic records and numbers in computer systems. Your bank account exists primarily in a computer system as a record of account and not as a bar of gold in a vault. The electronic money system has come to dominate the way we transact and use this social tool. This brings us to our second crucial understanding about money:
2. Modern money is not necessarily a physical item or something with intrinsic value but is merely a medium of exchange and a record of account.
But what is the primary purpose of money? As I mentioned briefly earlier, the primary purpose of money is to provide us with a convenient medium of exchange for access to goods and services. That is, instead of toting around bars of gold to buy groceries at Walmart or relying on a barter system, we have created convenient ways to record our payments in order to obtain goods and services that we might desire. This gives us access to the ability to feed our families, send our children to school, maintain our health, enjoy ourselves, and so on.

Money, while important, should never be confused with true wealth. Remember, money is merely the medium of exchange. It is a tool like many other tools humans create, and it provides us with a means to an end. While the ticket gets you into the theater, what you want is not the ticket. The ticket simply gives you access to the show, which is the true end. Money is merely the means to that end. Although money is a necessary component of modern life, it is not a necessary component of acquiring true wealth.

Now, true wealth has different meanings to different people, but in most cases it involves the addition of companionship, good friends, good family, good health, access to food, access to water, security, et cetera. More money might make it more convenient to achieve certain things,  but money and true wealth should not always be thought of as the same thing. Confusing money with true wealth is like confusing the theater ticket with the performance. Although we need some amount of tickets to enter the theater, the quality of that show is not necessarily dependent on the number of tickets we obtain throughout our lives. While money can certainly make it easier to obtain material goods, and perhaps even some level of happiness, it is always a means to some other end and
should not be confused with the end.

The end of sample contents


Pragmatic Capitalism progresses towards a thorough discussion of economics, by building his case piecemeal.

Roche starts by laying out some basic building blocks, including an overview of the concept of money, and remarks on money as a social construct, and a medium of exchange, as well as the notion of fiat money; he also alludes to how most modern money is credit (which sets the stage for a discussion of the monetary system later in the book).

Next, shifting to economics, he discusses how in an increasingly integrated global economy, it is important to maintain a “big picture” perspective, versus a more “local” perspective that prevailed in the time of Ben Graham, when investors focused on bottoms up analysis of individual companies. The modern world is obviously very different from the days when the Intelligent Investor was published, as today S&P companies generate an ever growing portion of their earnings abroad, and market correlations increase. Between 1990 and 1995, US markets had a 29% correlation with global markets, whereas between 2005 and 2010 the correlation was 73%. That’s a big change. Although many of us are conditioned to think locally, the spread of technology, rapid growth of an emerging global middle class, and the integration of markets demand that we think globally.

Moving to a personal perspective, Roche counsels us to make a distinction between investing and saving. The semantics here are subtle. Roche defines “investing” as it relates to capital investments that are then used generate production or productivity in the future. Investing might include financing your own entrepreneurial business that will use the money to finance future growth, or an investment in your own education, or job training, which might enhance your career prospects. Investing can be for “hitting a home run.” Saving, by contrast, is allocating capital that is neither consumed nor invested, but that you might consume (or invest) in the future. We should be more careful with this capital, since we may have a real need for it at some point, as with a specific event like college tuition, or an emergency. With savings, we are focused on preserving purchasing power and protecting ourselves from a permanent loss of capital. Roche returns to this concept later.

Next, Roche discusses a number of market myths which, though untrue, we persist in believing, and which cause us to do things we shouldn’t do. Many of these are solid contributions. You’re not going to be Warren Buffett, and trying to beat the market causes problems. The stock market won’t make you rich, and neither will anticipating the “next big thing.” High fees don’t always equate with good value. Modern portfolio theory does a poor job explaining how to construct the portfolio. There are other good observations that can help investors avoid common pitfalls in managing their finances.
The next section was my favorite part of the book, and covers how the new macroeconomy is changing portfolio construction. This relates to the “savings” portfolio, as defined earlier, which allocates capital that you may need to access at some point in the future.

Roche divides global assets into 7 classes on a spectrum, with protection against loss of purchasing power at the top and protection against permanent loss at the bottom:
  1. Emerging market equities and developed market small cap equities
  2. Developed market large cap equities
  3. High yield corporate bonds, preferred stock and REITs
  4. Foreign emerging market corporate bonds, foreign emerging market government debt
  5. Investment grade corporate bonds, municipal bonds
  6. TIPs, long-term developed market government bonds, intermediate term developed market government bonds
  7. Money market funds, treasury bills, bank deposits, cash
Roche views risk as the “potential you will not meet your financial goals.” This spectrum is useful for thinking about allocating across these asset classes, based on whether you are generally accumulating or protecting assets.

When you’re younger, gathering assets, and with a longer investing horizon, you might emphasize protecting against the loss of purchasing power, while when you’re older you might focus more on capital preservation. There’s no radical new thinking here, but by thinking broadly in terms of matching assets (savings) and liabilities (future needs) instead of using some whiz-bang mean-variance approach, you can position yourself with a more individualized and practical approach that will maximize your chances for meeting your financial goals. Roche also advises us to establish a methodology, automate it, and stick to it. This is good common sense advice that can be easy to forget in a rapidly changing world.

Next Roche tackles the importance of an appreciation of behavioral finance, and how our behavioral instincts affect financial markets and can lead us astray. This section includes a nice overview of a number of well-known behavioral biases, and how they make us behave irrationally. But there’s good news: if we can accept and acknowledge our biases and weaknesses, we can learn to identify and avoid them.

Roche then takes us through the workings of the modern monetary system. This section was dense, but enjoyable. Roche builds on his earlier discussion of money, by discussing private sector banking, the public sector and central banks, and currencies. -


Being successful in the modern world of finance requires a more in-depth understanding of our global economies on a macro level. What does a shifting demographic cycle mean? How does the explosive growth of emerging markets matter? Why does the world’s population affect my portfolio? Does the global monetary system impact my results this year? How does government intervention in markets impact my strategy? In Pragmatic Capitalism, Cullen Roche explores how our global economy works and why it is more important now than ever for investors to understand macroeconomics. Cullen Roche combines his expertise in global macro portfolio management, quantitative risk management, behavioral finance, and monetary theory to explain to readers how macroeconomics works, and provides insights and suggestions for getting the most out of their investment strategies. This book will uncover market myths and explain the rise of macroeconomics and why it impacts the readers’ portfolio construction. Pragmatic Capitalism is a must for any sophisticated investor who wants to make the most of their portfolio. -

One of the many reasons investors have been so whipsawed by the markets since 2007 is a lack of understanding about the dynamics at work between the financial markets and the economy.

In general, most of the experts in the field of economics haven’t done investors any favors in this regard. There have been hysterics by many over Fed policies and what they would mean for the financial markets yet not enough voices that offer objective or helpful views on the matter.

My problem with most economists is that (a) they spend way too much time trying to prove their intelligence, (b) their opinions are biased by their political beliefs and (c) they fail to connect the dots to show how or why the economic data they use does or does not matter to investors or relate it to average people in a tangible way.

This causes a ton of confusion for people without an economics background that don’t know what to pay attention to and what to ignore.

One of the few level-headed economic commentators I’ve been following on the subject is Cullen Roche over at the blog Pragmatic Capitalism.

Cullen’s new book, Pragmatic Capitaliam: What Every Investor Needs to Know About Money and Finance, is a collection of everything he’s learned about the relationship between portfolio management, the financial markets and the economy. It covers a wide range of topics to give readers a better sense of the interplay between the many different factors that affect people’s finances.

Roche cuts through the noise to provide a guide that people can actually understand. There’s no agenda or hidden motives behind his opinions. He doesn’t spend time covering political narratives or arguing about topics that have have no relevance to your financial decisions. He sets out to help provide perspective, something that’s generally lacking in the finance industry.

Although the subject matter can be complex depending on how it’s presented, Roche uses common sense language and useful analogies throughout to make his point.  I always appreciate when intelligent people are able to make complex topics understandable to a wider audience.  This is not as easy as it sounds.

While understanding the past helps you become a better investor, you also have to pay attention to the future.  Roche describes in great detail the impact that globalized markets and economies will have on the future portfolio decisions.  This is an area that I think is extremely important for investors to understand as globalization continues to re-shape the financial world.

But my favorite message from the book is one that I don’t thing gets enough attention in the financial blogosphere — the importance of investing in yourself. Here are a couple of quotes from the book ion the subject:

The best investment you’ll ever make is in trying to understand and maximize the value you can contribute to other people.

This means that most of us will make our true investments in things like our education, skills, training, and so on so we can provide something even more valuable for others.

Most people spend their time trying to increase their investment returns or save more money but end up ignoring their asset with the biggest potential — human capital.

I really enjoyed this book. It was unique, covered a wide variety of interesting material and I gained a new perspective on a number of important financial issues. -

Monday, November 27, 2017

Healing Teas: A Practical Guide to the Medicinal Teas of the World

A complete guide to medicinal teas from around the world and their amazing healing powers

For thousands of years, cultures throughout the world have known the healing power of teas.  Tea has been used as a holistic treatment for a host of illnesses, from arthritis to migraines, and is a time-tested all natural path to overall health and wellness.

Healing Teas is a complete, easy-to-follow and informative guide, blending together proper methods of preparing teas with the latest scientific research into their homeopathic qualities. Healing Teas also provides a unique A-Z guide to herbs, individual brews, and home remedies. From essiac to kombucha, chamomile to garlic, learn to prepare teas from around the world—and maximize your health. -


The wonderful world of tea is about to be opened unto you. If you already enjoy tea, I think you’ll be fascinated by some little-known facts about your favorite beverage. If you have not yet been initiated into the pleasures of tea, perhaps this book will inspire you to take a taste. There is a simple beauty in the taking of tea. Somehow, relaxing with a cup of tea carries you away into the serenity of a bygone age. But there is more than beauty to taking tea; it can also be an act of healing.

I believe in supporting the body with nutritive and natural-healing substances. Nowhere is it written that the ancient time-tested medicinals and therapies and today’s allopathic protocols cannot benefit one another. I not only believe they can, but that they should. To dismiss healing systems that have survived for thousands of years doesn’t make sense. These ancient protocols have lasted for just one reason. They work.

I personally became interested in the quite extraordinary power the body has to heal itself—especially when it is adequately supported—almost a quarter of a century ago. Here’s how it happened.

In 1972, my sister—the harried mother of six daughters all under fifteen years of age—sent her eldest daughter, Shelley, to me. I was working at home, had the time and inclination, and my sister was overburdened caring for her large family, which included a handicapped child and a baby. She was afraid she wouldn’t be able to give Shelley the amount of attention she needed.

Shelley had been suffering from an unexplained and quite frightening loss of weight. In spite of wanting to eat, she had no appetite and couldn’t eat. Her personality changed. Normally, “mother’s helper,” she fought and squabbled with her sisters. She was morose and had severe mood swings. Most frightening of all, she was wobbly on her feet and was constantly blinking and rubbing her eyes because her vision blurred.

Here’s where medical science stepped in. Although Shelley had all the classic symptoms, it took a six-hour glucose tolerance test to confirm a diagnosis of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is caused by excess insulin circulating through the bloodstream. The condition can be caused by eating too little, or eating the wrong things, thereby triggering the pancreas to produce too much insulin. It can also occur when a diabetic takes (or is given) too much insulin.

Shelley arrived at my home with a book—Low Blood Sugar and You—a definitive text on correcting hypoglycemia and bringing blood sugar into balance by purely dietary means. This is when I learned first-hand how spectacularly the body can heal itself when properly supported by natural means.

I served Shelley high-protein mini-meals with an ounce or two of herb tea to wash them down. In the beginning, she needed coaxing because it was hard for her to eat. But, as her body began functioning better, she regained her appetite little-by-little. I was cooking three meals a day for my husband and four children, but I ate exactly the same foods I was serving Shelley. This grand body-normalizing program caused me to lose about ten pounds (happy day), while Shelley gradually gained back the almost twenty pounds she had lost. When I returned Shelley to her family, she was fully recovered and able to eat whatever she wished, within reason.

The turnaround Shelley experienced was stunning. And it was all accomplished by the simplest and most natural means imaginable. Back then (1974), medical science wasn’t saying much of anything about the nutritional needs of the body. I began to wonder what else medical professionals were missing.

That was the beginning of my lifelong investigation of the natural healing substances employed by the ancients. Since that time, I have travelled throughout Europe and to the East, visiting, talking, sampling, experimenting, judging, and using teas that heal and other natural medicinals to support myself and my family through various illnesses.

My niece Shelley eventually became a convert to the natural ways, but she took a lot of convincing. She grew into a bright, beautiful—and stubborn—young woman. When she was pregnant with her first child, she began suffering from horrific migraine headaches. Because she didn’t want to take anything that could potentially harm the child she was carrying, Shelley decided to tough it out. I recommended feverfew tea, but she scoffed at the notion that a simple little herb could be of help. I warned her that the effects of feverfew are cumulative and urged her to start taking the tea immediately as a preventive measure.

The Planck Factor

On a dare, grad student Jessica Evans writes a thriller, creating a nightmare scenario based upon the theory that the speed of light is not a constant--one that has a dark application. Her protagonist (the fiancE of a scientist killed in a car crash) is pursued by those who want to use the theory to create the world's most powerful weapon.

Jessica's research into the science stirs up concern from an extremist group intending to use it for evil. Before long, Jessica's life mimics that of her protagonist, as she runs from terrorist conspirators who suspect she may try to stop them from causing a major disaster. As the clock ticks down, Jessica must put the pieces together and avert a global catastrophe.


“Suppose powerful accelerators managed to produce large numbers of Planck mass particles and that somehow a bomb was made with them. According to our theory, such a bomb would release exactly half the energy released by a conventional nuclear weapon with the same overall mass. In other words, such an expensive quantum gravitational weapon would be precisely half as powerful as a much cheaper conventional nuclear weapon. For more massive particles (say with masses equal to two or three times the Planck mass), the result would be even worse. I was pleased to find that even generals would probably not be dumb enough to hire Lee or me.”*

*Unfortunately, the possibility that Eρ might be negative reverses this argument, as explained in our paper. – João Magueijo, Faster Than the Speed of Light (Perseus Publishing, 2003), pp. 252-253.


What would it be like if a novel told the same story simultaneously in two versions with different sets of characters in different settings but with only somewhat different plots? The Planck Factor answers this question—with an additional twist on this concept that is only revealed at the end. This unconventional approach makes the novel more interesting than the typical adventure story.

Since the novel is about a character writing a novel about a character who is writing a novel, another interesting feature is that the novelist(s) sometimes discuss their own creative process and, in doing so, make critical comments about the very writing that we are reading. The story, in fact, introduces the phenomenological question of who is actually speaking to us as we read a book.

The central characters, Jessica and Alexia, are clever and daring without being unrealistically heroic. Their actions, for the most part, are believable. The prose is straightforward and polished. This is overall a very enjoyable book.

sharp, current and witty” — Terry Tyler (GoodReads Review)
On a dare, grad student Jessica Evans writes a thriller, creating a nightmare scenario based upon the theory that the speed of light is not a constant—one that has a dark application. Her protagonist (the fiancé of a scientist killed in a car crash) is pursued by those who want to use the theory to create the world’s most powerful weapon.
However, Jessica is soon running for her life when events mimic that of her protagonist. She’s threatened by terrorist conspirators who intend to use the knowledge to create an event that causes mass destruction. As the clock ticks down, Jessica must put the pieces together and avert a global catastrophe.

Inspired by a true story about a scientific challenge to Einstein’s theory of relativity.
“Thoroughly intriguing! A real page-turner.” - Zoë Sharp, author of the best-selling Charlie Fox series

“Does art hold a mirror to life? Or does life mirror art? New York Times best-selling author Debbi Mack builds this surprising thriller layer upon layer with an ending that will make you want to read it all over again.” - Donna Fletcher Crow, author of An All-Consuming Fire, The Monastery Murders

“Mack takes her reader on a roller-coaster ride with science, imagination, and a terrible possibility.” - Peg Brantley, author of the Aspen Falls Thriller series

“[A] sleek tour-de-force exercise in Hitchcockian suspense about domestic terrorism, in which the McGuffin is a novel-within-the-novel and the novelist and her work intersect in unpredictable ways. Reality and fiction clash and spar for supremacy until the final paragraph.” - W.D. Gagliani, author of Wolf’s Blind (The Nick Lupo Series) and Savage Nights

Memory Rescue

Memory is the fabric of our souls. It enables us to integrate and make sense of
the experiences of our bodies, minds, and spirits. It makes us who we are and
allows us to keep our loved ones close, even when they are far away. Memory
houses our joys, our hurts, and all of life’s lessons. It reminds us who is
trustworthy and who isn’t, who has helped us and whom we need to help.
Memory enables us to recall the important events in our lives and keeps us
centered and growing. And because it contributes to our values and outlook, it
also provides us with a sense of purpose that gives our lives meaning.
Our memories are such a part of us that we often take them for granted. Yet
when our memory is damaged, the costs can be high. A diminished memory can
rob us of our ability to make good decisions (because we forget important life
lessons) and disconnect us from those we love. Memory problems limit our
success at work, steal our independence, and ultimately make us vulnerable to
anyone who might take advantage of us.

When someone’s mental abilities, including memory, deteriorate enough to
affect daily life, we say that person has dementia. Worldwide, a new person is
diagnosed with dementia every seven seconds.[4] Of the approximately 318
million Americans living today, 45 million—about 15 percent—will get
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at some point in their lives. Tens of millions more will
experience other forms of dementia, and 75 percent of older adults will suffer
from memory problems.[5] Plus, more than 200 medication trials have failed to
reverse Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.[6] Given the
complexity of the illness and how early it begins altering the brain, we are likely
never going to have a medicine that cures it.

Yet new research suggests that a “memory rescue” program, like the one
presented in this book, can dramatically improve memory and can prevent and
sometimes even reverse some forms of dementia.[7] Given how most doctors
approach this issue, however, you cannot count on traditional medicine to rescue
your memory.


Here is a common scenario: You are having difficulty remembering
conversations, forgetting where you put your reading glasses, or briefly getting
lost driving in familiar areas. So you see your primary care physician or local
neurologist, who asks you a few questions, gives you some short tests, orders an
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and tells you, “Everyone has memory
problems as they age. You’re normal.” It’s also common for family members and
friends to downplay forgetfulness.

A week or so later, you meet again with your doctor, who says that the report
on your MRI came back as “mild, age-appropriate brain atrophy.” He or she tells
you that you have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). You’re reassured that it’s
common and that you’ll likely retain your personality and long-term memory
until later in the illness. You’re encouraged to get your affairs in order, given a
prescription for Aricept (donepezil, a common memory medication that has
short-term benefits but loses its effects after 18 months[8]), and told to schedule
a follow-up appointment in six months. Typically, there is no discussion about
eliminating risk factors through exercise, diet, supplementation, or memory
training exercises.

That’s literally the extent of the workup in 80 to 90 percent of the memoryrelated
cases that come to us at Amen Clinics from the traditional medical
system. It’s completely ineffective, heartbreaking . . . and unconscionable given
what we know now.

Until recently, health-care professionals assessing the presence of memory
problems in patients classified their cognitive functioning as: (1) normal with no
symptoms; (2) mild impairment observed by patients or their families; or (3)
Alzheimer’s disease, in which dementia was becoming significant and getting

The National Institute on Aging announced a significant change in 2011.
Based on new brain imaging data, they added a new “preclinical” level. As a
result, the current staging guidelines are

1. normal
2. preclinical: no obvious symptoms, but negative changes can be seen on
biomarkers such as brain scans
3. mild cognitive impairment
4. Alzheimer’s disease

Can you see the problem here? Long before symptoms develop, your brain
may already be beginning to deteriorate, years or even decades before you
realize it![9] A UCLA study found that 95 percent of people with Alzheimer’s
are not diagnosed until they are in the moderate to severe stages of the disorder.
Yet the brain of a person diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease at age 59 likely
started to show signs of deterioration by the time that person turned 30.
No matter your age, memory symptoms should be taken seriously.

Developing brain fog or feeling as if your memory is slipping when you are in
your forties, fifties, sixties, seventies, or even eighties is common, but it’s not
normal. It is a sign of impending doom. Ten years after you notice a problem
(called subjective cognitive decline), there is an estimated 70 to 100 percent
chance of your getting worse and slipping into dementia.[10]

But while it is true that memory issues are common with age, they are not
inevitable. In the presymptomatic stage, when memory problems are minor, help
is likely to be most effective. If you’re struggling with your memory, even if it
seems inconsequential, now is the time to get serious about your brain’s health.


Our decades-long experience at Amen Clinics of looking at the brain, together
with the latest scientific research, has convinced me that the traditional approach
to memory problems is misguided and leads to unnecessary disease and

Just as many tributaries feed a river that is about to flood and destroy a
community, we’ve discovered that there are many different causes of memory
loss. It is no longer accurate to talk about mild cognitive impairment or AD as
single entities with single causes, just as at Amen Clinics we no longer talk
about a single type of depression, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder, or obesity. The ability to identify and address each of the potential
causes of memory problems has enabled us to develop a plan to prevent or even
reverse these devastating issues. Steve’s story illustrates how effective our
approach can be.

Why We Sleep

To Sleep . . .

Do you think you got enough sleep this past week? Can you recall the last time you woke up without an alarm clock feeling refreshed, not needing caffeine? If the answer to either of these questions is “no,” you are not alone. Two-thirds of adults throughout all developed nations fail to obtain the recommended eight hours of nightly sleep.I

I doubt you are surprised by this fact, but you may be surprised by the consequences. Routinely sleeping less than six or seven hours a night demolishes your immune system, more than doubling your risk of cancer. Insufficient sleep is a key lifestyle factor determining whether or not you will develop Alzheimer’s disease. Inadequate sleep—even moderate reductions for just one week—disrupts blood sugar levels so profoundly that you would be classified as pre-diabetic. Short sleeping increases the likelihood of your coronary arteries becoming blocked and brittle, setting you on a path toward cardiovascular disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Fitting Charlotte Brontë’s prophetic wisdom that “a ruffled mind makes a restless pillow,” sleep disruption further contributes to all major psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety, and suicidality.

Perhaps you have also noticed a desire to eat more when you’re tired? This is no coincidence. Too little sleep swells concentrations of a hormone that makes you feel hungry while suppressing a companion hormone that otherwise signals food satisfaction. Despite being full, you still want to eat more. It’s a proven recipe for weight gain in sleep-deficient adults and children alike. Worse, should you attempt to diet but don’t get enough sleep while doing so, it is futile, since most of  the weight you lose will come from lean body mass, not fat.

Add the above health consequences up, and a proven link becomes easier to accept: the shorter your sleep, the shorter your life span. The old maxim “I’ll sleep when I’m dead” is therefore unfortunate. Adopt this mind-set, and you will be dead sooner and the quality of that (shorter) life will be worse. The elastic band of sleep deprivation can stretch only so far before it snaps. Sadly, human beings are in fact the only species that will deliberately deprive themselves of sleep without legitimate gain. Every component of wellness, and countless seams of societal fabric, are being eroded by our costly state of sleep neglect: human and financial alike. So much so that the World Health Organization (WHO) has now declared a  sleep loss epidemic throughout industrialized nations.II It is no coincidence that countries where sleep time has declined most dramatically over the past century, such as the US, the UK, Japan, and South Korea, and several in western Europe, are also those suffering the greatest increase in rates of the aforementioned physical diseases and mental disorders.

Scientists such as myself have even started lobbying doctors to start “prescribing” sleep. As medical advice goes, it’s perhaps the most painless and enjoyable to follow. Do not, however, mistake this as a plea to doctors to start prescribing more sleeping pills—quite the opposite, in fact, considering the alarming evidence surrounding the deleterious health consequences of these drugs.

But can we go so far as to say that a lack of sleep can kill you outright?
Actually, yes—on at least two counts. First, there is a very rare genetic disorder
that starts with a progressive insomnia, emerging in midlife. Several months into
the disease course, the patient stops sleeping altogether. By this stage, they have
started to lose many basic brain and body functions. No drugs that we currently
have will help the patient sleep. After twelve to eighteen months of no sleep, the
patient will die. Though exceedingly rare, this disorder asserts that a lack of sleep
can kill a human being.
Second is the deadly circumstance of getting behind the wheel of a motor
vehicle without having had sufficient sleep. Drowsy driving is the cause of
hundreds of thousands of traffic accidents and fatalities each year. And here, it is
not only the life of the sleep-deprived individuals that is at risk, but the lives of
those around them. Tragically, one person dies in a traffic accident every hour in
the United States due to a fatigue-related error. It is disquieting to learn that
vehicular accidents caused by drowsy driving exceed those caused by alcohol and
drugs combined.
Society’s apathy toward sleep has, in part, been caused by the historic failure of
science to explain why we need it. Sleep remained one of the last great biological
mysteries. All of the mighty problem-solving methods in science—genetics,
molecular biology, and high-powered digital technology—have been unable to
unlock the stubborn vault of sleep. Minds of the most stringent kind, including
Nobel Prize–winner Francis Crick, who deduced the twisted-ladder structure of
DNA, famed Roman educator and rhetorician Quintilian, and even Sigmund
Freud had all tried their hand at deciphering sleep’s enigmatic code, all in vain.
To better frame this state of prior scientific ignorance, imagine the birth of
your first child. At the hospital, the doctor enters the room and says,
“Congratulations, it’s a healthy baby boy. We’ve completed all of the preliminary
tests and everything looks good.” She smiles reassuringly and starts walking
toward the door. However, before exiting the room she turns around and says,
“There is just one thing. From this moment forth, and for the rest of your child’s
entire life, he will repeatedly and routinely lapse into a state of apparent coma. It
might even resemble death at times. And while his body lies still his mind will
often be filled with stunning, bizarre hallucinations. This state will consume onethird
of his life and I have absolutely no idea why he’ll do it, or what it is for. Good
Astonishing, but until very recently, this was reality: doctors and scientists
could not give you a consistent or complete answer as to why we sleep. Consider
that we have known the functions of the three other basic drives in life—to eat, to
drink, and to reproduce—for many tens if not hundreds of years now. Yet the
fourth main biological drive, common across the entire animal kingdom—the
drive to sleep—has continued to elude science for millennia.
Addressing the question of why we sleep from an evolutionary perspective only
compounds the mystery. No matter what vantage point you take, sleep would
appear to be the most foolish of biological phenomena. When you are asleep, you
cannot gather food. You cannot socialize. You cannot find a mate and reproduce.
You cannot nurture or protect your offspring. Worse still, sleep leaves you
vulnerable to predation. Sleep is surely one of the most puzzling of all human
On any one of these grounds—never mind all of them in combination—there
ought to have been a strong evolutionary pressure to prevent the emergence of
sleep or anything remotely like it. As one sleep scientist has said, “If sleep does not
serve an absolutely vital function, then it is the biggest mistake the evolutionary
process has ever made.”III
Yet sleep has persisted. Heroically so. Indeed, every species studied to date
sleeps.IV This simple fact establishes that sleep evolved with—or very soon after—
life itself on our planet. Moreover, the subsequent perseverance of sleep
throughout evolution means there must be tremendous benefits that far outweigh
all of the obvious hazards and detriments.
Ultimately, asking “Why do we sleep?” was the wrong question. It implied there
was a single function, one holy grail of a reason that we slept, and we went in
search of it. Theories ranged from the logical (a time for conserving energy), to the
peculiar (an opportunity for eyeball oxygenation), to the psychoanalytic (a nonconscious
state in which we fulfill repressed wishes).
This book will reveal a very different truth: sleep is infinitely more complex,
profoundly more interesting, and alarmingly more health-relevant. We sleep for a
rich litany of functions, plural—an abundant constellation of nighttime benefits
that service both our brains and our bodies. There does not seem to be one major
organ within the body, or process within the brain, that isn’t optimally enhanced
by sleep (and detrimentally impaired when we don’t get enough). That we receive
such a bounty of health benefits each night should not be surprising. After all, we
are awake for two-thirds of our lives, and we don’t just achieve one useful thing
during that stretch of time. We accomplish myriad undertakings that promote
our own well-being and survival. Why, then, would we expect sleep—and the
twenty-five to thirty years, on average, it takes from our lives—to offer one
function only?
Through an explosion of discoveries over the past twenty years, we have come
to realize that evolution did not make a spectacular blunder in conceiving of
sleep. Sleep dispenses a multitude of health-ensuring benefits, yours to pick up in
repeat prescription every twenty-four hours, should you choose. (Many don’t.)
Within the brain, sleep enriches a diversity of functions, including our ability to
learn, memorize, and make logical decisions and choices. Benevolently servicing
our psychological health, sleep recalibrates our emotional brain circuits, allowing
us to navigate next-day social and psychological challenges with cool-headed
composure. We are even beginning to understand the most impervious and
controversial of all conscious experiences: the dream. Dreaming provides a unique
suite of benefits to all species fortunate enough to experience it, humans included.
Among these gifts are a consoling neurochemical bath that mollifies painful
memories and a virtual reality space in which the brain melds past and present
knowledge, inspiring creativity.

Downstairs in the body, sleep restocks the armory of our immune system, helping fight malignancy, preventing infection, and warding off all manner of sickness. Sleep reforms the body’s metabolic state by fine-tuning the balance of insulin and circulating glucose. Sleep further regulates our appetite, helping control body weight through healthy food selection rather than rash impulsivity.   Plentiful sleep maintains a flourishing microbiome within your gut from which we know so much of our nutritional health begins. Adequate sleep is intimately tied to the fitness of our cardiovascular system, lowering blood pressure while keeping our hearts in fine condition.

A balanced diet and exercise are of vital importance, yes. But we now see sleep
as the preeminent force in this health trinity. The physical and mental
impairments caused by one night of bad sleep dwarf those caused by an
equivalent absence of food or exercise. It is difficult to imagine any other state—
natural or medically manipulated—that affords a more powerful redressing of
physical and mental health at every level of analysis.

Sunday, November 26, 2017

National Geographic Video - Catherine The Great

National Geographc Video - Kingdom Of The Apes

Subtitle (Unedited) by

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two powerful kingdoms two mighty<font color="#E5E5E5"> kings</font>

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brother against brother

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<font color="#E5E5E5">father</font>

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against<font color="#CCCCCC"> scythe</font>

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/<font color="#E5E5E5"> country</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">two realms torn apart by battles for the</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">thrust</font>

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this is a<font color="#CCCCCC"> larger-than-life</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> story of two</font>

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kings<font color="#CCCCCC"> a chimpanzee dynasty</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> filled with</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">dry</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> food a gorilla wheeler</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> plagued by</font>

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violence<font color="#E5E5E5"> intrigue a betrayal</font>

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these two sagas filled with politics<font color="#E5E5E5"> and</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">steam</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> will change the ape Kingdom</font>

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his red brow<font color="#E5E5E5"> marks him as different</font>

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his mountaintop realm<font color="#CCCCCC"> is</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the size of a</font>

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small<font color="#CCCCCC"> city</font>

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and his household<font color="#E5E5E5"> is enormous</font>

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with a large harem several black back

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<font color="#CCCCCC">nights</font>

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and a<font color="#E5E5E5"> gaggle of little princes and</font>

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a gorilla<font color="#CCCCCC"> king must juggle</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> his duties as</font>

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sovereign with those of a father highest

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among the women<font color="#E5E5E5"> folk is Titus's</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> favorite</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">tuck</font>

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she's been with<font color="#CCCCCC"> him for</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> 19 years and</font>

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given<font color="#E5E5E5"> him four sons</font>

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one of Titus's<font color="#E5E5E5"> heirs rano left almost as</font>

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soon<font color="#E5E5E5"> as he turned silver back at age 14</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> establish his own</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> kingdom but this</font>

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piece is a mirage after<font color="#E5E5E5"> three decades</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">rising to the peak of power everything</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">Titus has built is now under threat</font>

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there is a traitor<font color="#E5E5E5"> in his ranks</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">a powerful silverback named curium</font>

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he is in his<font color="#CCCCCC"> early 20s</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> and lusting</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> for</font>

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and there's a twist Toriyama<font color="#E5E5E5"> is Titus's</font>

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own<font color="#E5E5E5"> firstborn son it's the ultimate</font>

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struggle for succession<font color="#E5E5E5"> more than</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> 100</font>

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mountain gorillas are<font color="#E5E5E5"> Silverbacks</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">but only around half</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> of them are rulers</font>

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the<font color="#E5E5E5"> reigning king determines the fate of</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">all those under him</font>

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the<font color="#CCCCCC"> gorillas</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> know their futures hang in</font>

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the balance

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for nearly<font color="#E5E5E5"> three</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> years</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">cheeri</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Yama has tried to unseat his</font>

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now the duel<font color="#E5E5E5"> is about to reach its</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">climax</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">Titus rose to greatness by overcoming a</font>

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troubled past

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when he was just<font color="#E5E5E5"> four</font>

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he saw his<font color="#E5E5E5"> silverback father gunned</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> down</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">by poachers</font>

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with the band now<font color="#E5E5E5"> leaderless Titus's</font>

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mother fled leaving<font color="#E5E5E5"> him an orphan</font>

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he would have died<font color="#CCCCCC"> but</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> incredibly he was</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">adopted</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> by a male from outside his</font>

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after years<font color="#E5E5E5"> of struggle</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> titus</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> beat the</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">odds to become the king he is today</font>

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and now he faces<font color="#E5E5E5"> the biggest challenge</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">of</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> his long life</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> south in Gombe</font>

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National Park<font color="#E5E5E5"> Tanzania</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">a fearsome chimpanzee army stalks</font>

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through the forest<font color="#CCCCCC"> a hunting</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> party</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">looking for fresh meat</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">and the stakes are high</font>

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no one needs the hunt to succeed more

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than<font color="#CCCCCC"> the leader Freud he is a calm</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> and</font>

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<font color="#CCCCCC">skilful ruler but his</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> younger brother</font>

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Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> his second-in-command</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> and a rifle</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">broad shouldered his hair constantly on</font>

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end he's nearly<font color="#E5E5E5"> six times stronger than</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">a human and he is the biggest threat</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> to</font>

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Freud's hold on<font color="#E5E5E5"> power</font>

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at<font color="#E5E5E5"> 23 Freud has led the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> troop for just</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">over a year</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> he rules over</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> more</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> than 50</font>

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chimps mostly females and<font color="#E5E5E5"> youngsters</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> but</font>

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<font color="#E5E5E5">around a dozen males</font>

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his<font color="#E5E5E5"> kingdom covers roughly six square</font>

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miles he has deep calm eyes and the gray

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goatee of an intellectual<font color="#E5E5E5"> though five</font>

00:09:46,440 --> 00:09:48,980
years younger

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is<font color="#E5E5E5"> powerful and aggressive</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> with a wide</font>

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grizzled face

00:10:01,530 --> 00:10:04,210
the brother<font color="#CCCCCC"> Braun</font>

00:10:04,210 --> 00:10:15,700
in fact it's all about tactics<font color="#E5E5E5"> Freud</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font>

00:10:15,700 --> 00:10:17,940
leader is calmly holding court

00:10:17,940 --> 00:10:23,050
<font color="#CCCCCC">surrounded by his subjects but tension</font>

00:10:23,050 --> 00:10:25,649
has been building<font color="#E5E5E5"> for months</font>

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his younger brother Frodo<font color="#CCCCCC"> is still his</font>

00:10:28,810 --> 00:10:34,540
junior and still frustrated he bides his

00:10:34,540 --> 00:10:40,740
time<font color="#CCCCCC"> until he judges the moment is right</font>

00:10:46,840 --> 00:10:49,979

00:11:07,870 --> 00:11:11,880
will the usurpers succeed

00:11:12,400 --> 00:11:21,850
<font color="#E5E5E5">we'll Freud crush him Freud can't let</font>

00:11:21,850 --> 00:11:23,560
this challenge go unanswered

00:11:23,560 --> 00:11:31,180
after all he's<font color="#CCCCCC"> the reigning</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> king his</font>

00:11:31,180 --> 00:11:33,490
hair stands on end<font color="#CCCCCC"> making him</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> look</font>

00:11:33,490 --> 00:11:37,810
almost as big as Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> his display is</font>

00:11:37,810 --> 00:11:40,950
even<font color="#E5E5E5"> more</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> impressive</font>

00:11:48,010 --> 00:11:50,830

00:11:50,830 --> 00:11:55,300
Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> looks on</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> in a law</font>

00:12:12,509 --> 00:12:15,930
Frodo's attempted takeover<font color="#E5E5E5"> has failed</font>

00:12:15,930 --> 00:12:19,079
<font color="#E5E5E5">for now</font>

00:12:20,010 --> 00:12:23,600
he submits to Freud

00:12:36,959 --> 00:12:40,449
to the north there is turmoil rolling

00:12:40,449 --> 00:12:43,480
<font color="#E5E5E5">through Titus's</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> guerrilla</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> troop the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> King</font>

00:12:43,480 --> 00:12:46,709
knows there is dissension among the<font color="#E5E5E5"> race</font>

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he can sense a fight coming<font color="#E5E5E5"> with</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> curio</font>

00:12:49,810 --> 00:12:55,589
<font color="#CCCCCC">ma</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> but his past</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> has prepared him</font>

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Titus knows his son a<font color="#CCCCCC"> silverback in his</font>

00:12:59,259 --> 00:13:03,930
prime<font color="#CCCCCC"> has terrifying</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> physical strength</font>

00:13:04,170 --> 00:13:11,490
he could maim Titus even kill him

00:13:13,079 --> 00:13:15,850
so the wily king beats a strategic

00:13:15,850 --> 00:13:21,269
retreat<font color="#E5E5E5"> leading his band</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> not just away</font>

00:13:21,269 --> 00:13:24,449
but up

00:13:27,400 --> 00:13:33,200
<font color="#CCCCCC">4,000 feet up to the</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> ancient volcanic</font>

00:13:33,200 --> 00:13:37,570
crater at the<font color="#E5E5E5"> top of</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> Mount</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> facade</font>

00:13:44,110 --> 00:13:47,239

00:14:08,070 --> 00:14:12,800
still<font color="#CCCCCC"> shirahama</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> pursues him</font>

00:14:12,800 --> 00:14:16,030

00:14:26,780 --> 00:14:29,270
mountain gorillas have<font color="#CCCCCC"> extra thick coats</font>

00:14:29,270 --> 00:14:34,130
<font color="#E5E5E5">put the chill</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> of their high homes but up</font>

00:14:34,130 --> 00:14:42,440
here<font color="#E5E5E5"> it's near freezing for the young</font>

00:14:42,440 --> 00:14:45,710
gorillas and<font color="#CCCCCC"> Titus's band the cold is</font>

00:14:45,710 --> 00:14:49,760
enough to<font color="#E5E5E5"> kill they can't</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> stay up here</font>

00:14:49,760 --> 00:14:52,180
for long

00:14:58,690 --> 00:15:03,070
Titus<font color="#E5E5E5"> is forcing his subjects to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> choose</font>

00:15:03,070 --> 00:15:08,680
him or<font color="#CCCCCC"> his son</font>

00:15:18,800 --> 00:15:22,010

00:15:28,220 --> 00:15:31,800
the power of<font color="#CCCCCC"> a</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> gorilla ruler comes from</font>

00:15:31,800 --> 00:15:34,819
the size of his entourage

00:15:36,590 --> 00:15:39,740
if Titus's subjects abandoned him<font color="#E5E5E5"> he</font>

00:15:39,740 --> 00:15:46,130
could be fatally weakened<font color="#E5E5E5"> it's the</font>

00:15:46,130 --> 00:15:49,610
females who will decide and they are

00:15:49,610 --> 00:15:52,150
<font color="#E5E5E5">wavering</font>

00:15:55,380 --> 00:15:57,760
wondering if<font color="#E5E5E5"> Titus still has the power</font>

00:15:57,760 --> 00:16:00,269
<font color="#E5E5E5">to lead</font>

00:16:06,690 --> 00:16:08,940
<font color="#E5E5E5">where's the virile young kiriyama</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a</font>

00:16:08,940 --> 00:16:10,010
better bet

00:16:10,010 --> 00:16:13,639

00:16:13,990 --> 00:16:16,750
<font color="#E5E5E5">to Silverbacks</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> have come to the top of</font>

00:16:16,750 --> 00:16:22,550
<font color="#CCCCCC">the mountain one will go down as king</font>

00:16:22,550 --> 00:16:24,090

00:16:24,090 --> 00:16:25,980

00:16:25,980 --> 00:16:32,010
in Tanzania<font color="#CCCCCC"> two years</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> have passed</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a</font>

00:16:32,880 --> 00:16:36,220
shadow spreads<font color="#CCCCCC"> over</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the hills of Gombe</font>

00:16:36,220 --> 00:16:39,590

00:16:39,590 --> 00:16:42,350
and it threatens to destroy everything

00:16:42,350 --> 00:16:45,670
Freud has worked for

00:16:49,020 --> 00:16:54,710
<font color="#CCCCCC">a plague has struck the chimpanzees</font>

00:16:59,410 --> 00:17:03,579
<font color="#E5E5E5">Freud's chimps have mange</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a devastating</font>

00:17:03,579 --> 00:17:06,809
skin parasite

00:17:07,490 --> 00:17:13,240
his mother<font color="#E5E5E5"> the matriarch</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> fifi</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> is sick</font>

00:17:13,400 --> 00:17:27,420

00:17:29,880 --> 00:17:32,640
<font color="#E5E5E5">it's apps their</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> strengths</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> no matter how</font>

00:17:32,640 --> 00:17:35,299
much they<font color="#CCCCCC"> eat</font>

00:17:40,210 --> 00:17:43,930

00:17:44,470 --> 00:17:49,210
the parasite spreads by physical contact

00:17:53,549 --> 00:17:57,519
Frodo<font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> estranged usurper escapes the</font>

00:17:57,519 --> 00:17:59,759

00:18:01,980 --> 00:18:05,779
he's still strong and<font color="#CCCCCC"> healthy</font>

00:18:08,360 --> 00:18:11,070
Freud's weakness gives Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font>

00:18:11,070 --> 00:18:14,419
opportunity he's been waiting<font color="#E5E5E5"> for</font>

00:18:28,050 --> 00:18:32,700
now the tables are<font color="#CCCCCC"> turned</font>

00:18:55,100 --> 00:18:59,610
Frodo drives<font color="#E5E5E5"> Freud away and he is too</font>

00:18:59,610 --> 00:19:02,660
<font color="#E5E5E5">weak to fight</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> back</font>

00:19:08,630 --> 00:19:12,380
the<font color="#CCCCCC"> king's reign</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> is over</font>

00:19:12,380 --> 00:19:14,860
Freud's era is finished

00:19:14,860 --> 00:19:18,020

00:19:18,020 --> 00:19:24,010
alone and dejected<font color="#E5E5E5"> the others avoid him</font>

00:19:28,870 --> 00:19:34,000
the usurper<font color="#CCCCCC"> claims his kingdom</font>

00:20:05,639 --> 00:20:14,080
now Frodo<font color="#CCCCCC"> is the one being groomed</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font>

00:20:14,080 --> 00:20:17,630
females form his harem

00:20:17,630 --> 00:20:21,709

00:20:29,840 --> 00:20:32,940

00:20:40,510 --> 00:20:44,500
photos personality shapes his reign<font color="#E5E5E5"> he</font>

00:20:44,500 --> 00:20:48,850
<font color="#CCCCCC">imposes</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> his will with an iron fist</font>

00:21:00,130 --> 00:21:05,260
Freud<font color="#E5E5E5"> can only watch from the sidelines</font>

00:21:09,610 --> 00:21:12,460
but Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> faces a totally unexpected</font>

00:21:12,460 --> 00:21:28,929
challenge now<font color="#CCCCCC"> King</font>

00:21:28,929 --> 00:21:33,820
Frodo eagerly produces<font color="#CCCCCC"> heirs</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> a year into</font>

00:21:33,820 --> 00:21:37,020
his<font color="#E5E5E5"> reign something incredible happens</font>

00:21:37,020 --> 00:21:44,500
he<font color="#CCCCCC"> fathers twins</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> twin chimpanzees are</font>

00:21:44,500 --> 00:21:48,700
extraordinarily<font color="#E5E5E5"> rare both almost</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> never</font>

00:21:48,700 --> 00:21:52,960
<font color="#CCCCCC">survive but</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> they're lucky their mother</font>

00:21:52,960 --> 00:21:55,690
gremlin<font color="#E5E5E5"> somehow manages to nurture them</font>

00:21:55,690 --> 00:21:57,870

00:22:05,250 --> 00:22:10,170
Frodo<font color="#E5E5E5"> remains a brutal overlord</font>

00:22:12,120 --> 00:22:15,830
he rules as dictator for years<font color="#E5E5E5"> a</font>

00:22:15,830 --> 00:22:19,040
substantial rain

00:22:21,710 --> 00:22:26,590
yet no chimpanzee<font color="#CCCCCC"> King</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> lasts forever</font>

00:22:30,170 --> 00:22:33,939

00:22:34,780 --> 00:22:37,400
five years after he exploit<font color="#E5E5E5"> frauds</font>

00:22:37,400 --> 00:22:41,240
<font color="#E5E5E5">illness to seize</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> control Frodo</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> is struck</font>

00:22:41,240 --> 00:22:44,740
<font color="#CCCCCC">down by a wasting disease</font>

00:22:45,650 --> 00:22:49,650

00:22:54,460 --> 00:22:59,710
he disappears<font color="#E5E5E5"> into the forest</font>

00:23:14,880 --> 00:23:22,640

00:23:22,640 --> 00:23:25,460
in the mountain heights<font color="#CCCCCC"> tightest turns</font>

00:23:25,460 --> 00:23:33,260
35 today is older than any other known

00:23:33,260 --> 00:23:34,280
<font color="#E5E5E5">silverback</font>

00:23:34,280 --> 00:23:41,349

00:23:43,289 --> 00:23:49,019
since his son<font color="#CCCCCC"> plus three jr. black backs</font>

00:23:49,019 --> 00:23:54,630
and a couple of<font color="#CCCCCC"> youngsters</font>

00:24:09,760 --> 00:24:14,890
Titus clings to what power he has left

00:24:16,059 --> 00:24:19,429
but there's a new<font color="#E5E5E5"> silverback rival out</font>

00:24:19,429 --> 00:24:21,730

00:24:25,320 --> 00:24:27,630
the rivals quickest route to creating

00:24:27,630 --> 00:24:30,269
his own dynasty<font color="#E5E5E5"> would be to take over</font>

00:24:30,269 --> 00:24:33,679
Titus's remaining<font color="#E5E5E5"> band</font>

00:24:44,610 --> 00:24:48,399
Titus senses his rival is near<font color="#E5E5E5"> but</font>

00:24:48,399 --> 00:24:53,340
continues to<font color="#E5E5E5"> eat putting on a calm face</font>

00:24:54,570 --> 00:24:57,220
the<font color="#CCCCCC"> king needs</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to keep his strength up</font>

00:24:57,220 --> 00:25:01,659
<font color="#CCCCCC">to</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> maintain his dominance and keep his</font>

00:25:01,659 --> 00:25:14,019
few followers Titus knows<font color="#E5E5E5"> he's too old</font>

00:25:14,019 --> 00:25:16,539
<font color="#E5E5E5">to win a physical faceoff with his son</font>

00:25:16,539 --> 00:25:22,440
Ron oh but Ron<font color="#CCCCCC"> oh won't leave him alone</font>

00:25:22,440 --> 00:25:25,870
he will<font color="#E5E5E5"> wear his aging</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> father down</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> in a</font>

00:25:25,870 --> 00:25:28,889
drawn-out<font color="#E5E5E5"> pursuit</font>

00:25:34,400 --> 00:25:37,519

00:25:38,000 --> 00:25:40,830
the<font color="#CCCCCC"> gorillas would normally spend</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> hours</font>

00:25:40,830 --> 00:25:44,090
a day feeding<font color="#CCCCCC"> and resting</font>

00:25:52,030 --> 00:25:55,250
but<font color="#E5E5E5"> rano is relying on the reserves of</font>

00:25:55,250 --> 00:26:01,430
<font color="#E5E5E5">youth and he needs less rest he'll hound</font>

00:26:01,430 --> 00:26:07,570
his old dad<font color="#E5E5E5"> and let age do the rest</font>

00:26:14,740 --> 00:26:21,110
however<font color="#E5E5E5"> far</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> Titus</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> flees rano is always</font>

00:26:21,110 --> 00:26:23,280
behind<font color="#CCCCCC"> him</font>

00:26:23,280 --> 00:26:34,700

00:26:50,210 --> 00:26:54,149
after two grueling weeks<font color="#CCCCCC"> Titus is</font>

00:26:54,149 --> 00:26:56,809

00:27:12,940 --> 00:27:17,020
he can't run<font color="#E5E5E5"> forever</font>

00:27:31,840 --> 00:27:36,930
finally<font color="#E5E5E5"> Titus can go no</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> further</font>

00:27:38,320 --> 00:27:41,929

00:27:41,929 --> 00:27:45,049
<font color="#CCCCCC">TUC his favorite female</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> and others</font>

00:27:45,049 --> 00:27:47,649
gather around

00:27:49,650 --> 00:27:53,630
little<font color="#E5E5E5"> amore tends to him</font>

00:27:54,050 --> 00:28:02,000
but Titus is too old too tired

00:28:02,000 --> 00:28:06,190

00:28:15,900 --> 00:28:39,500

00:28:43,130 --> 00:28:49,190
the great silverback<font color="#CCCCCC"> King is dead</font>

00:28:50,840 --> 00:29:06,920

00:29:08,340 --> 00:29:11,220
<font color="#CCCCCC">rano</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> has got what he wanted</font>

00:29:11,220 --> 00:29:14,380

00:29:14,890 --> 00:29:20,710
the throne<font color="#E5E5E5"> is his but to become</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a true</font>

00:29:20,710 --> 00:29:24,610
silverback<font color="#E5E5E5"> King he must step up prove</font>

00:29:24,610 --> 00:29:35,530
<font color="#CCCCCC">that he has the power to lead unless he</font>

00:29:35,530 --> 00:29:37,450
can win the respect<font color="#CCCCCC"> and support of his</font>

00:29:37,450 --> 00:29:43,120
band he is<font color="#E5E5E5"> doomed they will eventually</font>

00:29:43,120 --> 00:29:50,710
abandon him to succeed

00:29:50,710 --> 00:29:53,559
<font color="#CCCCCC">rano must gained</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the backing of tuk</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font>

00:29:53,559 --> 00:29:58,390
one female left in the group she was

00:29:58,390 --> 00:30:03,790
<font color="#E5E5E5">especially close to the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> old</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> king and for</font>

00:30:03,790 --> 00:30:08,730
her rano<font color="#CCCCCC"> is no</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Titus</font>

00:30:10,990 --> 00:30:14,830
to win<font color="#E5E5E5"> over</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> tuk Renault</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> must challenge</font>

00:30:14,830 --> 00:30:23,050
<font color="#E5E5E5">and beat another silverback in his</font>

00:30:23,050 --> 00:30:23,740

00:30:23,740 --> 00:30:26,380
no one chimp has emerged to<font color="#CCCCCC"> take</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Frodo's</font>

00:30:26,380 --> 00:30:37,860
place he returns

00:30:44,120 --> 00:30:46,400
but<font color="#E5E5E5"> Frodo is a shadow of</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> his former</font>

00:30:46,400 --> 00:30:57,530
massive self like any tyrant<font color="#CCCCCC"> he refuses</font>

00:30:57,530 --> 00:31:03,530
<font color="#CCCCCC">to admit that his time has passed he</font>

00:31:03,530 --> 00:31:07,510
tries<font color="#E5E5E5"> to grab what he sees as his</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> do</font>

00:31:07,510 --> 00:31:15,620
<font color="#E5E5E5">meet the hunters have just caught but</font>

00:31:15,620 --> 00:31:18,950
Frodo<font color="#CCCCCC"> is no</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> longer the fearsome</font>

00:31:18,950 --> 00:31:22,950

00:31:25,650 --> 00:31:31,160

00:31:41,070 --> 00:31:47,760

00:31:47,760 --> 00:31:50,830
<font color="#E5E5E5">Frodo's fall leads to four years of</font>

00:31:50,830 --> 00:31:57,790
instability leaders come and go none

00:31:57,790 --> 00:32:01,020
<font color="#E5E5E5">rating for long</font>

00:32:01,850 --> 00:32:05,990
in this power vacuum<font color="#CCCCCC"> Frodo and Floyd are</font>

00:32:05,990 --> 00:32:08,120
<font color="#E5E5E5">both eventually accepted back into</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font>

00:32:08,120 --> 00:32:10,570

00:32:11,160 --> 00:32:13,380
though neither will ever sit<font color="#CCCCCC"> on the</font>

00:32:13,380 --> 00:32:16,070
throne again

00:32:19,150 --> 00:32:24,519

00:32:28,610 --> 00:32:32,820
<font color="#E5E5E5">gorilla</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> king rano</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> may be strong but he</font>

00:32:32,820 --> 00:32:39,450
<font color="#E5E5E5">hasn't won power yet even the smallest</font>

00:32:39,450 --> 00:32:46,559
gorilla in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> game is unimpressed this</font>

00:32:46,559 --> 00:32:48,510
little tyke has more juice<font color="#CCCCCC"> than the</font>

00:32:48,510 --> 00:32:51,350
supposed<font color="#CCCCCC"> king</font>

00:33:07,130 --> 00:33:10,219

00:33:28,070 --> 00:33:29,369
<font color="#CCCCCC">rano</font>

00:33:29,369 --> 00:33:33,349
still has to<font color="#CCCCCC"> prove</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> his bravery</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> and</font>

00:33:34,460 --> 00:33:45,749
<font color="#CCCCCC">finally he gets</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> his</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> chance his little</font>

00:33:45,749 --> 00:33:50,429
band bumps into<font color="#E5E5E5"> a rival clan this is Ron</font>

00:33:50,429 --> 00:33:51,690
<font color="#CCCCCC">hos big test</font>

00:33:51,690 --> 00:33:54,210
if<font color="#CCCCCC"> tuck wants to leave him</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> for another</font>

00:33:54,210 --> 00:33:58,549
silverback<font color="#E5E5E5"> this is her opportunity</font>

00:34:00,710 --> 00:34:03,869

00:34:04,559 --> 00:34:09,179
<font color="#CCCCCC">Renault</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> must risk</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> everything to prove</font>

00:34:09,179 --> 00:34:12,500
his<font color="#CCCCCC"> worth as protector</font>

00:34:15,159 --> 00:34:18,468

00:34:20,109 --> 00:34:23,359
the rival group is strong<font color="#CCCCCC"> with three</font>

00:34:23,359 --> 00:34:27,980
<font color="#E5E5E5">huge males each of them capable of</font>

00:34:27,980 --> 00:34:40,599
killing<font color="#E5E5E5"> rano rano stands tall</font>

00:34:42,800 --> 00:34:46,530
by projecting<font color="#E5E5E5"> strength</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> Renault faces</font>

00:34:46,530 --> 00:34:51,470
down his foes and attains power

00:34:55,280 --> 00:34:59,760
the<font color="#CCCCCC"> faceoff is a turning</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> point he proves</font>

00:34:59,760 --> 00:35:02,490
that he has what it<font color="#CCCCCC"> takes to be a worthy</font>

00:35:02,490 --> 00:35:03,870
<font color="#CCCCCC">king</font>

00:35:03,870 --> 00:35:08,250

00:35:11,359 --> 00:35:14,279
the members of<font color="#E5E5E5"> his</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> troop are no longer</font>

00:35:14,279 --> 00:35:17,140
<font color="#CCCCCC">just family</font>

00:35:17,140 --> 00:35:32,800
now they are his subjects even<font color="#CCCCCC"> tux seems</font>

00:35:32,800 --> 00:35:37,590
to accept that he is<font color="#E5E5E5"> her new solder</font>

00:35:41,380 --> 00:35:44,500
like any<font color="#E5E5E5"> newly crowned ruler</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> rano has a</font>

00:35:44,500 --> 00:35:47,550
challenging<font color="#CCCCCC"> future</font>

00:35:54,400 --> 00:35:56,780

00:35:56,780 --> 00:35:59,460
if he is to truly<font color="#E5E5E5"> follow in the great</font>

00:35:59,460 --> 00:36:02,880
Titus's footsteps he must attract new

00:36:02,880 --> 00:36:09,120
females<font color="#E5E5E5"> only by producing</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> heirs will</font>

00:36:09,120 --> 00:36:12,960
<font color="#CCCCCC">rano ensure his legacy as a true</font>

00:36:12,960 --> 00:36:16,049
silverback<font color="#E5E5E5"> king</font>

00:36:16,049 --> 00:36:18,109

00:36:23,960 --> 00:00:00,000

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